Standard Generalized Markup Language
(SGML) is an international standard defining the structure of documents.
Offers freedom from proprietary
software and hardware systems--document managers can choose "best of breed" tools
to create, manage, or retrieve data.
- Documents marked up in SGML allow control
over revision and reversion--when stored in an SGML database; original
data is archived alongside any changes.
Is a vendor independent language--the format
of your data does not need to be changed based on its publication media.
- Information needs only to be created once
and re-used--no need to duplicate effort when there are changes to product
- SGML automated processes make it possible
to target specific information--offering shorter production cycles, better
electronic production, and minimal updates.
SGML: A Time Line…
1967 – the concept of a generic mark-up
language was first discussed at a meeting between the Graphics Communication
and the Government Printing Office
1970’s – first publication of a standard
for the first generic mark-up language (GML).
1978 – First version of SGML published as
a Graphics Communication Association Standard.
1986 – Revised version of SGML published
as an international standard (ISO 8879). This is the definitive version
SGML in use today.
SGML Documents Consist Of…
Document Declaration – specifies basic
facts about the "dialect" of the SGML being used.
Document Type Definition (DTD) – specifies
the actual tag names, the relationship between the tags, the order in which
they appear in the document, and any qualifying attributes which apply
to individual tags. Also, defines the format for linkages to other documents.
Document Instance – actual text of
the document with the SGML tags embedded, identifying the various parts
of the text (Document Instance can share a DTD w/several other documents,
but can only conform to one DTD itself and cannot draw on tagset, defaults,
or definitions from several DTD’s).
Output Specification – varies information
about the formatting of specific text elements (ex, typeface, indention,
and font size).
Please contact us for further information.
The World Wide Web currently uses HTML, a
reduced tagset version of SGML, to encode its documents.
The Department of Defense and its defense
contractors often use SGML encoded documents to exchange data, bids, and
The Text Encoding Initiative, a consortium
of academic institutions, is using SGML to make available electronic versions
of texts in the humanities for scholarly study.
SGML is used to create Braille and large print
books for the visually impaired and physically challenged.